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Peruvian Popular Aaction Party, 374
Variables and Codes for 1950-1962
For the concepts and variables below, use these links to Political Parties: A Cross-National Survey:
Governmental Status
Issue Orientation
Goal Orientation
Organizational Complexity
Organizational Power
Organizational Coherence
Membership Involvement
The "ac" code is for "adequacy-confidence"--a data quality measure ranging from 0 (low) to 9 (high)
Party name and code number
Peruvian Popular Aaction Party, 374
Accion Popular, AP

Institutionalization Variables
, 1.01-1.06
1.01 Year of Origin and 1.02 Name Changes
1956, AC9
0, AC9
The Accion Popular party was founded at the time of Belaunde's first candidacy for president in 1956. The party was probably formed prior to the elections of that year, although it did not begin its extensive effort of organization until 1957, after Belaunde's defeat. The AP did not change its name during our time period. The party's name was chosen by its founder and leader, Fernando Belaunde Terry.
1.03 Organizational Discontinuity
0, AC3
The AP did not experience a split or merger during our time period. The party's coalition with the PDC in 1963 does not constitute a merger. A major split did occur in 1962 when the newly elected legislature convened. On the first day, thirty-four legislators, elected as candidates of the AP, renounced their party. Since a military coup occurred the very next day, and the legislature did not reconvene, and since these legislators supposedly rejoined the AP party prior to the 1963 elections, this split will not influence our code.
1.04 Leadership Competition
2, AC5
Fernando Belaunde Terry, who founded and named the Accion Popular party, remained the party's leader throughout the remainder of our time period. Our low adequacy-confidence code reflects the assumption that Belaunde was the party's legitimate leader, as well as its effective one.
1.05 Legislative Instability
Instability is 1.04, AC6
The popular action party displayed considerable instability in its legislative representation. Of course it could claim no seats before 1956. Thereafter, its legislative representation fluctuated from 4 to 33 percent of the seats.
1.06 Electoral Instability
Instability is .41, AC9
Excluding the 1950 uncontested election of Odria before the AP was founded, Fernando Belaunde was the Accion Popular candidate for the presidency in the three presidential elections, 1956, 1962, and 1963. The party consistently received approximately one-third of the vote in each of the three elections, with the highest mark of 39 percent sufficient for victory in 1963.

Governmental Status Variables, 2.01-2.07
2.01 Government Discrimination
0 for 1956-63, AC5
Excluding the military government of 1962-63, the government apparently did not discriminate against or in favor of the AP during the bulk of our time period.
2.02 Governmental Leadership
1 out of 8 for 1956-63, AC9
The position of President of Peru was held by General Odria during the first half of our time period, and by Prado of the MDP from 1956 to 1962. A military dictatorship ruled after the 1962 coup of President Prado. Elections were held in 1963, and Belaunde of the AP assumed the presidency.
2.03 Cabinet Participation
1 out of 8 for 1956-63, AC9
The AP party probably held no cabinet positions prior to 1963. In 1963, President Belaunde awarded cabinet posts to members of his party, the AP. The PDC, a coalition partner, also received some cabinet posts.
2.04 National Participation
6 for 1956-63, AC5
The AP party, although strongest in the central highlands of Peru, competes nationally. Its success is rather uniform across regions. The party is weakest in the north, traditionally an APRA stronghold. A 1968 survey showed AP support to deviate an average of 4.3 percentage points from the population distribution in four regions--eastern jungles, coast, highlands, and Lima.
2.05 Legislative Strength
Strength is .13 for 1956-63, AC6
The popular action party displayed considerable instability in its legislative representation. Of course it could claim no seats before 1956. Thereafter, its legislative representation fluctuated from 4 to 33 percent of the seats.
2.06 Electoral Strength
Strength is .36 for 1956-63, AC9
Excluding the 1950 uncontested election of Odria before the AP was founded, Fernando Belaunde was the Accion Popular candidate for the presidency in the three presidential elections, 1956, 1962, and 1963. The party consistently received approximately one-third of the vote in each of the three elections, with the highest mark of 39 percent sufficient for victory in 1963.
2.07 Outside Origin
6, AC5
The AP party was formed in 1956 by Belaunde and his followers. Belaunde was an architect from a socially respected family of Arequipa. Many of his followers and co-founders were apparently educated professionals.

Issue Orientation Variables, 5.01-5.15
5.01 Ownership of Means of Production
3, AC5
The AP party, although denying accusations of a policy of nationalization, appears to have favored government ownership of some basic industries. The Belaunde government of 1963 entered into arbitration with the IPC over the title to the company's oil fields. The income tax collecting agency was nationalized by this regime. Belaunde's plans for agrarian reform included expropriation (probably with compensation) of idle land and subsequent mortgages to squatter Indians. Edgardo Seone, Belaunde's advisor on agrarian reform, suggested limited socialization of farm management where the land is not expropriated.
5.02 Government Role in Economic Planning
3, AC5
The AP party advocated government subsidization of the interior region with highway development and provision of building equipment. The party proposed government subsidization of some industries, particularly in this region. The party wished to speedily develop the region economically in order to benefit the Indian population and Peru's economy. The Belaunde government initiated tax reforms, controls over bank credits and interest payments, and government enlistment of volunteers who, armed with government tools and supplies, developed the land in poverty areas of the interior. The regime also manipulated import duties to control prices. The party apparently advocated an active government role in the development of sectors of the economy.
5.03 Redistribution of Wealth
5, AC7
The AP party advocated several measures which would increase the wealth of the poor, especially the Indian, and some which would decrease the wealth of Peru's wealthy. The party desired a redistribution of idle estate land and the development of interior jungle land for the good of the Indian. Belaunde, as president, nationalized the income tax collecting agency, which was owned and operated by bankers who profited by their enterprise. Edgardo Seone, Belaunde's Vice President in charge of agrarian reform, advocated profit sharing by industrial and agrarian workers. The AP party planned, and Belaunde executed, a program in which the state provides equipment to local volunteer workers when these citizens desire the aid for economic development projects.
5.04 Social Welfare
The AP party probably favored state promotion of social welfare programs, but information is insufficient for the purpose of assigning a definitive code.
5.05 Secularization of Society
The church and state were separated constitutionally in Peru. Although most Peruvian parties were probably favorably disposed towards the catholic church, no information concerning party policy towards secularization is evident. The church showed no bias for the AP party despite references to Belaunde's friendship with Lima's cardinal and his devout Catholicism.
(24)5.06 Support of the Military
The AP party apparently had good relations with the military. Because APRA's presidential candidate, Dr. Haya, appeared to have negotiated an alliance with Odria's UNO following the inconclusive elections of 1962, the military threw its support behind Belaunde and the AP party. The army took control of the government and annulled the elections before an UNO-APRA coalition could assume power. However, information is insufficient for purposes of coding.
5.07 Alignment with East-West Blocs
5, AC5
Although the AP party received the support of Peruvian communists, who were among the party ranks, the AP party seemed quite friendly towards the united states. The Belaunde administration accepted u.s. aid and investments. He regime did dispute the title of IPC (an American firm) oil fields, but the disagreement was arbitrated. Belaunde did not advocate withdrawal from the OAS .
5.08 Anti-Colonialism
2, AC5
The AP party stated a desire for foreign investments. However, its actions against the international petroleum company suggest that the party, when in power, discouraged new foreign investment. But our consultant feels that this overstates the case, for foreign investment increased under Belaunde and IPC was a special case.
5.09 Supranational Integration
No information
5.10 National Integration
1, AC7
The AP party advocated government accommodation of the different regions of Peru. Some decentralization of authority was included in the plan to allow the coastal area to continue its "westernization" while the interior would be aided in its development of a communal, Indian society. Cultural pluralism was advocated.
5.11 Electoral Participation
1, AC5
The information file does not discuss the AP position on extension of the franchise. Our consultant says that its leaders were opposed to further extension of the franchise according to a 1967 survey of party leaders.
5.12 Protection of Civil Rights
No information
5.13 Interference with Civil Liberties
3, AC5
The press was not censored during the Belaunde administration. It is likely that the AP party opposed interference with civil liberties.
5.14 / 5.15 US--Soviet Experts Left-Right Ratings
US says 3, non-communist left
Soviets say 2, the party unifies representatives of the national bourgeoisie, minor landowners, middle classes, intelligentsia, working classes, and wealthy peasanthood.

Goal Orientation Variables, 6.01-6.55
6.00 Open Competition in the Electoral Process
3, AC7
The AP party relied upon the strategy of open competition in the electoral process, but the party has disrupted society on occasion for its own campaign ends. The AP participated in the national elections of 1956, 1962, and 1963. Belaunde won the presidential contest in 1963 and ran second in both previous elections.
6.10 Restricting Party Competition
0, AC5
The AP party apparently did not attempt to restrict party competition during our time period. The party relied upon the strategy of open competition .
6.20 Subverting the Political System
1, AC7
The AP party is generally not oriented towards the strategy of subversion. The party, led by the controversial Belaunde, staged anti- government demonstrations in 1956 and again in 1959. In 1956, Belaunde's protest march demanded that general Odria allow the AP leader to contest the presidential elections of that year. The demonstration, violent in attitude and action, was successful. In 1959, Belaunde was arrested for holding a party rally illegally. AP members flocked to the streets in protest, demanding Belaunde's release and the end of the temporary restrictions on political rallies. In 1962, presidential candidate Belaunde threatened to overthrow the government should the recent elections, marred by voting irregularities, not be annulled. The army coup prevented the revolution. Belaunde won the elections of 1963.
6.30 Propagandizing Ideas and Program
6.31 0, AC3. The AP party apparently did not operate any mass media.
6.32 0, AC3. No evidence suggesting the existence of AP party schools is apparent.
6 .33 1, AC3. The AP party seems to have passed some resolutions and platforms at its conventions, but this activity was probably not frequent.
6.34 1, AC3. Belaunde published a book (the conquest of Peru by Peruvians) outlining some of his (and his party's) views. The AP and PDC published the "Bases para el Plan de Gobierno," the position paper of the AP-PDC electoral alliance of 1963. The AP probably published few other position papers.
6.50 Providing for Welfare of Party Members
No information

Autonomy Variables, 7.01-7.05
7.01 Sources of Funds
6, AC3
The AP party seems to have received funds from a variety of sources. In 1956, the party claimed little resources and no financial organization. By the end of our time period, the party probably received funds from labor, student groups, business and commercial interests, and professionals.
7.02 Source of Members
6, AC3
There is little information concerning party membership. The AP party probably had no membership requirements. The party drew members from various sectors of society. Communists were numerous within the party, according to most sources. Indians, labor, business and commercial interests, and professional intellectual sectors all contributed to party membership substantially.
7.03 Sources of Leaders
2 (sectors 03, 04), AC3
The leadership of the AP party apparently came from the business and professional-intellectual sectors of Peruvian society. Belaunde was Dean of the Architectual College, as well as a professional architect. Many of the AP's programs were authored by successful university graduates.
7.04 Relations with Domestic Parties
7, AC3
The AP party entered into a coalition with the PDC in 1963. However, this occurred late in our time period, and the event will not influence the code. Although the AP included communists, and the party received the support of the illegal communist party of Peru, the AP was never in alliance with the CPP.
7.05 Relations with Foreign Organizations
5, AC3
There is no evidence suggesting that the AP party was related in any manner with a foreign organization.

Organizational Complexity Variables, 8.01-8.07
8.01 Structural Articulation
8, AC5
Four national organs of the AP party can be identified, a Convention, a Congressional Delegation, a National Committee, and a Directorate. The selection procedures and functional responsibilities of these organs are indeterminate.
8.02 Intensiveness of Organization
While the AP party supposedly was highly organized, no information regarding the intensiveness of organization is evident.
8.03 Extensiveness of Organization
No information
8.04 Frequency of Local Meetings
No information
8.05 Frequency of National Meetings
No information
8.06 Maintaining Records
No information
8.07 Pervasiveness of Organization
0, AC3
There is little information concerning party socioeconomic penetration . The party probably held little influence in the independent student front, which included students who supported the MDP and PDC as well. The Labor Affairs Bureau of the party was apparently small and insignificant.

Organizational Power Variables, 9.01-9.08
9.01 Nationalization of Structure
5, AC6
The AP party organization consisted of an hierarchy which had a directory at the top, regional committees at the middle level, and, most probably, local organizations at the bottom.
9.02 Selecting the National Leader
8, AC9
The AP was led by Belaunde throughout our time period. No means of changing leadership is evident.
9.03 Selecting Parliamentary Candidates
Information regarding the selection of parliamentary candidates is incomplete. Belaunde probably gave his approval to those who ran as AP candidates.
9.04 Allocating Funds
No information
9.05 Formulating Policy
7, AC5
Belaunde announced most policy decisions for the party. Seone, an expert in the area of agrarian reform, occasionally made announcements in this realm. Policy was probably determined by Belaunde and his closer associates and aides.
9.06 Controlling Communications
0, AC3
The AP party evidently controlled no important communications media at any level.
9.07 Administering Discipline
0, AC4
A reference to the suspension of a party leader by the AP directorate suggests that this body administered major disciplinary techniques. This suspension occurred in 1963. But our consultant advises that there was little party discipline.
9.08 Leadership Concentration
6, AC5
Belaunde excercised sole leadership of his personalistic party, the AP . He could commit the party to binding courses of action at will.

Coherence Variables, 10.01-10.06
10.01 Legislative Cohesion
.50, AC3
The AP party probably demonstrated little cohesiveness in the legislature. The party appears to have lost several of its legislators between 1956 and 1962. The revolt of 1962 (see variable 1.03) further supports the impression of an uncohesive legislative group.
10.02 Ideological Factionalism
5, AC8
The AP party was apparently divided into several factions. Ideologically, the party included conservatives, led by Celso Pastor and Oscar Trelles, and radicals, led by Mario Villavan and including communists and socialists. Several of the party's radicals were ousted by Belaunde and the Party Directorate in 1963, and Villavan was suspended.
10.03 Issue Factionalism
The AP may have been torn by issue factionalism, but information is scarce. The many factions in the party probably disagreed on various issues.
10.04 Leadership Factionalism
5, AC3
The majority of AP's membership probably supported Belaunde with zeal. To them, Belaunde was another savior. However, a substantial minority of the party merely accepted his leadership grudgingly. These included communists and socialists of several orientations.
10.05 Strategic or Tactical Factionalism
5, AC3
Belaunde's occasional outbursts of revolutionary furvor were probably due to the influence of AP radicals, which included a substantial number of communists, who would support a popular uprising. Most party members opposed this strategy. Many of these radicals were purged from the party in 1963.
10.06 Party Purges
1 for 1956-63, AC5
The AP party apparently purged itself of several radical members after its electoral victory in 1963. The size of the purge was probably small but significant. The purge reportedly occurred soon after the elections, but it is unclear as to whether it happened in 1963, as we have assumed, or in 1964.

Involvement Variables, 11.01-11.06
11.01 Membership Requirements
No information
11.02 Membership Participation
No information
11.03 Material Incentives
1, AC3
There is no reason to suspect that more than a minority of militants were motivated by material incentives.
11.04 Purposive Incentives
1, AC3
The lofty and idealistic programs of the AP party probably motivated quite a few militants.
11.05 Doctrinism
0, AC3
There is no evidence of AP references to any written literature in attempts to justify party activities.
11.06 Personalism
2, AC3
Belaunde's charismatic qualities and provocative actions probably led to a great deal of personalistic motivation of militants. Belaunde appears to have been an idol to many Peruvians. Nominal members were probably affected to a greater degree.