Path: Table of Contents > Essay on Party Politics > Party 071
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, United Federal Party, 071
Variables and Codes for 1950-1962
For the concepts and variables below, use these links to Political Parties: A Cross-National Survey:
Governmental Status
Issue Orientation
Goal Orientation
Organizational Complexity
Organizational Power
Organizational Coherence
Membership Involvement
The "ac" code is for "adequacy-confidence"--a data quality measure ranging from 0 (low) to 9 (high)
Party name and code number United Federal Party, UFP, 071
Information base and researchers
The information base for party politics in the Rhodesia and Nyasaland Federation consists of 2,302 pages from 96 documents, with 900 pages or 39 percent pertaining to the United Federal Party. Howard Matthews indexed the literature for retrieval. Donald Hook coded the variables.

Institutionalization Variables, 1.01-1.06
1.01 year of origin and 1.02 name changes
1953, ac9
8, ac8
The Federal Party is considered here to be the predecessor of the United Federal Party. The Federal Party was founded on August 7, 1953, for the purpose of running a slate of candidates in the 1953 elections. It consisted of the leaders of the government parties in each of the three territories. The United Rhodesia and the Federal parties combined in 1958 to form the United Federal Party. In early 1963, the party again reverted to its previous name, the Federal Party, as it served out the last year of the crumbling Federation.
1.03 organizational discontinuity
9, ac6
In 1958, the Federal Party merged with the United Rhodesia party to form the United Federal Party, which we are treating as a continuation of the former Federal Party. At the dissolution of the Federation in 1963, the UFP itself dissolved into four separate parties. At the federal level, the party was known once more as the Federal Party. Its remnants in Southern Rhodesia became the Rhodesia national party--in Northern Rhodesia, the national progress party--and in Nyasaland, the Nyasaland constitutional party.
1.04 leadership competition
11, ac8
The leadership on the national level changed only once, when Godfrey Huggins (Lord Malvern) retired in 1955. Roy Welensky was the unanimous choice of the party congress as he was backed by Huggins.
1.05 / 2.05 legislative instability and strength instability is .10, ac7
strength is .65 for first half, ac7, and .81 for second half, ac7
The UFP held 24 of the 35 seats in the assembly following the first federal elections in 1953. It lost some seats in by-elections, but following the 1958 elections the UFP held 46 of the seats in an enlarged house of 59. In 1962, the UFP won 54 of the seats, but virtually all the other parties, European and African, boycotted the elections.
1.06 / 2.06 electoral instability and strength instability is .20, ac8
strength is .67 for first half, ac9, and .77 for second half, ac7
Federal elections were held in 1953, 1958, and 1962. Because almost all the other parties boycotted the 1962 elections, only the first two were used in calculating the UFP strength. However, even this is misleading, for the electorate was effectively limited to Europeans and was less than 2 percent of the population, which rose from 6 to 9 million during our time period. Thus, these election returns greatly overestimate the UFP"s strength in the population as a whole.

Governmental Status Variables, 2.01-2.07
2.01 government discrimination
1 for 1st half, ac7
1 for 2nd half, ac7
election laws in the Federation tended to favor European parties such as the Federal Party. There were no references to the Federal Party having access to the media. Until 1957, no party was allowed access to the media.
2.02 governmental leadership
5 out of 5 for 1953-57, ac9
6 out of 6 for 1958-63, ac9
the UFP was the only governmental party during the Federation, which ended in 1963. Huggins of the UFP was prime minister until 1955, when he was succeeded by Welensky.
2.03 cabinet participation
5 out of 5 for 1953-57, ac9
6 out of 6 for 1958-63, ac9
UFP was the only government party and therefore appointed all of the cabinet posts until the end of the Federation.
2.04 national participation
6 for 1953-57, ac8
5 for 1958-63, ac6
the UFP was clearly a national party. In fact, it was the only party which was truly national at least for the first half of the time period. However, the UFP lost strength in the late stages of the Federation, especially in Southern Rhodesia.
2.07 outside origin
4, ac8
the UFP was formed by the leaders of the legislatures in each of the three territories, namely Huggins in Southern Rhodesia, Welensky in Northern Rhodesia, and barrow in Nyasaland. For the purposes of our coding, this is interpreted as being formed by groups of legislators currently holding office. 

Issue Orientation Variables, 5.01-5.15
5.01 ownership of means of production
1, ac5
while our file contained no information on this variable, our consultant reported that the UFP supported existing government ownership of railroads, power plants etc., but opposed expansion of government ownership.
5.02 government role in economic planning
3, ac5
our file does not discuss this, but our consultant estimates a con- moderate position for the UFP.
5.03 redistribution of wealth
5, ac6
the UFP was the governmental party. It advocated no change in the status quo. The Federation was extremely segregated. It advocated and practiced repression late in the time period.
5.04 social welfare
1, ac3
the UFP was split into factions. The largest faction believed in ultimate integration, but believed that this would take a very long time. They believed it was their duty to lead the blacks out of ignorance. The other faction was strictly segregationist. The party policy was to follow the status quo.
5.05 secularization of society
no information
5.06 support of the military
5, ac5
in the absence of information from the file, our consultant states that federal budget expenditures and legislative debates on them reflected strong support for the military.
5.07 alignment with east-west blocs
5, ac5
party leaders frequently indicated the importance of Federation to the west, and the government signed a defence treaty with south Africa and Portugal.
5.08 anti-colonialism
1 for 1st half, ac8
1 for 2nd half, ac8
the UFP became very concerned with the issue of dominion status after the dominion party pressed for independence. Ufp took a much more moderate stand than the DP on the issue of independence.
5.09 supranational integration
no information
5.10 national integration
3, ac6
the UFP was the party of Federation. It was specifically formed for the purpose of pushing for the Federation of the three territories. It was the governmental party of the Federation and ran on platforms calling for the retention of the federal structure in 1956, 1958, and 1962.
5.11 electoral participation
3, ac8
the UFP constantly kept the number of African voters low. The few reforms carried out were very minor ones to placate the British government.
5.12 protection of civil rights
3, ac5
the UFP was a European party and is therefore very discriminatory. It only took "civilized" Africans as members, and set very high standards of " civilization." 
5.13 interference with civil liberties
3, ac6
although the UFP supported an independent federal broadcasting corporation and private ownership of newspapers, our consultant advises that the UFP-controlled central, Northern, and Southern Rhodesian governments strongly backed the denial of access to mass media by African nationalists, a denial which was enforced by private owners of newspapers and the federal broadcasting corporation.
5.14 / 5.15 US--Soviet experts left-right ratings
US says 2, center
Soviets say nothing

Goal Orientation Variables, 6.01-6.55
6.00 open competition in the electoral process
2, ac8
UFP was always in open competition with the other European parties, but it passed franchise laws to stay in power over the African majority.
6.10 restricting party competition
2, ac7
the UFP goal orientation strategy had two faces. While it competed openly with its European counterparts, it acted to suppress the political effectiveness of African parties.
6.20 subverting the political system
0, ac8
as the UFP was the governmental party, there was no ned to subvert the political process. They practically controlled it.
6.30 propagandizing ideas and program
6.31--0, ac3. No reference in the literature was made to the existence of a party press. Radio and TV were government operated.
6.32--0, ac3. No party schools were mentioned in the literature.
6.33--2, ac8. The UFP debated issues at its national convention and issued policy statements after each debate.
6.34--2, ac7. The UFP executive committee published a series of position papers and put out occasional newsletters which cannot reliably be called a position paper.
6.50 providing for welfare of party members
0, ac3
no reference to provision for social welfare in any of the literature.

Autonomy Variables, 7.01-7.05
7.01 sources of funds
1 (sector 04), ac7
most of the party"s money came from the big business sector of society, especially from the copper companies. This may amount to as much as three fourths of the party income. The rest came from private donations and party subscription.
7.02 source of members
6, ac6
party membership in the sphere of federal politics is a tenuous concept due to the fluctuation of parties and party structure in the Federation .
7.03 sources of leaders
insufficient evidence
7.04 relations with domestic parties
7, ac7
the UFP was strong during most of the Federation. It did not really need other parties. The only other party with very similar goals was the dominion party, which was the UFP"s main opposition.
7.05 relations with foreign organizations
5, ac3
there is no mention in the literature of any contact with outside parties. There is really no international movement to which the UFP could associate.

Organizational Complexity Variables, 8.01-8.07
8.01 structural articulation
4, ac6
three national organs existed--the finance committee, the parliamentary caucus, and the standing committee (executive committee). Membership in the organs was generally decided on the basis of informal cooption.
8.02 intensiveness of organization
4, ac6
the basic unit of organization is the branch. There is at least one in every electoral unit, with as many as five in some.
8.03 extensiveness of organization
3, ac6
out of 30 electoral districts, the UFP had 79 branches at one time. Rural branches were rarer than those in metropolitan areas. Because ordinary electoral districts covered the whole country but not the whole population, they excluded the vast majority of Africans.
8.04 frequency of local meetings
4, ac7
meetings tended to vary in frequency according to the nature of the particular branch. In certain metropolitan areas they meet once a month on a set schedule, while in certain rural branches meetings occurred two to three times a year.
8.05 frequency of national meetings
1, ac3
the information on the national organs of the UFP is surprisingly scanty. It appears that there was a federal standing committee, which numbered about 25, and a somewhat larger federal central executive. From a mention that the party organization was activated only for short periods before elections and from another mention that the central executive had met only once to the end of 1956, it is inferred that national committee meetings of the UFP were not frequent, probably less than once a year.
8.06 maintaining records
1, ac4
it does not appear that the UFP engaged in an extensive publishing effort. It did issue a statement of program and principles at least once, and reference was made to a party newspaper published sporadically. There is no evidence at all that the party maintained any type of research archive, at least not at the federal level, and no brief was held for the quality of its membership lists.
8.07 pervasiveness of organization
0, ac3
there is no mention of ancillary organizations of the UFP, if one excludes the bulawayo action group, which was only a group of about 30 businessmen in one city said to have influence in the party through their financial contributions.

Organizational Power Variables, 9.01-9.08
9.01 nationalization of structure
3, ac7
Our consultant advises that a code of 3 is certainly the most accurate coding with regard to federal/Southern Rhodesian relations within the UFP. But perhaps 4 would be more accurate with regard to federal/Northern Rhodesian and Nyasaland relations within the party. Mulford describes federal supremacy over the Northern Rhodesian party at the time of the 1962 election (see either of his books--003 and 028). The UFP was a tightly knit oligarchy, but not along the lines of formal party structure due to the looseness and unwieldiness of the formal structure. The territorial divisions of the party were largely autonomous.
9.02 selecting the national leader
3, ac7
leaders on the national and local level were selected by party congresses which were the supreme bodies of the unit.
9.03 selecting parliamentary candidates
5, ac8
candidates were recommended by the branch to be included on the national standing committee list. They were reviewed by headquarters and sent back to the branch, which chose from the approved candidates.
9.04 allocating funds
2, ac6
the strain of financing an election was on the individual candidate and his branch. Also, some of the funds he collected were channeled upward to the national party for the maintenance of the national offices.
9.05 formulating policy
5, ac3
most policy decisions were decided by the prime minister or the cabinet. The rest were formed by the national convention.
9.06 controlling communications
0, ac3
newspapers were controlled by a chain. Radio and tv were government controlled, with no political advertising allowed until 1958. There is no mention of party control of communications in the literature.
9.07 administering discipline
0, ac3
there were no accepted procedures for discipline in the party. When conflict arose in the form of a power struggle or major policy disagreement, the loser generally dropped out of the party.
9.08 leadership concentration
6, ac7
this was the government party, and the party president was always the prime minister. Huggins and Welensky were both strong enough to speak for the party.

Coherence Variables, 10.01-10.06
10.01 legislative cohesion
.90, ac3
the UFP completely controlled the legislature. As this was a parliamentary system and the party was strong, there was a tendency toward high cohesion. However, the party had some serious internal crises.
10.02 ideological factionalism
5, ac5
the basic ideological division with the UFP was based on social rather than economic considerations. The social issue was race, and factions developed over a liberal or conservative handling of the African majority.
10.03 issue factionalism
6, ac9
the founding principle of the UFP was the indissolubility of the Federation. However, the territorial components of the UFP, especially that of Southern Rhodesia, were not as tied to the Federation, certainly not at the expense of territorial authority. The issue of territorial-federal relations was a consistent source of factionalism within the UFP, and it eventually led to the party"s dissolution.
10.04 leadership factionalism
5 for 1st half, ac7
5 for 2nd half, ac5
leadership factionalism was intertwined with ideological factionalism within the UFP, especially in the first part of our time period. Todd, considered to be a liberal, was denied leadership of the UFP after the united Rhodesia party merged with the Federal Party. Moreover, he was ousted from his office of prime minister in Southern Rhodesia, losing the leadership of his party to whitehead, the new prime minister. Later, whitehead clashed with Welensky, the party"s leader at the federal level.
10.05 strategic or tactical factionalism
0, ac3
there is no evidence of conflicts over strategy and tactics in the material.
10.06 party purges
0 for 1st half, ac3
0 for 2nd half, ac3
no purges were mentioned in the material.

Involvement Variables, 11.01-11.06
11.01 membership requirements
0, ac3
one source reports official membership figures but then says that the figures were not reliable for the concept of membership was too nebulous. It appears that there were no membership requirements.
11.02 membership participation
0, ac3
there are no references to membership duties in the literature. As membership appears to be self-defined, membership participation seems to be minimal. However, our consultant reports that election meetings were frequent in the period preceding elections, and they were well attended.
11.03 material incentives
1, ac3
one might suppose that material incentives would play some role in the UFP for it was the governing party. Scarritt reports that the African members of the UFP were motivated by material incentives.
11.04 purposive incentives
2 for 1st half, ac3
1 for 2nd half, ac3
it is expected that many of the UFP militants would be motivated by the desire to preserve the Federation, at least during the first part of our time period. Given the relative ease with which the party disintegrated at the end, this incentive was devalued for the second half of our period.
11.05 doctrinism
0, ac3
the literature makes no references to any body of party doctrine.
11.06 personalism
0, ac3 there is some evidence that todd and probably Welensky commanded some personal following, but not to the extent that would qualify the UFP as a personalist party.