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Chapter 6: Issue Orientation (pp. 53-77), this is p. 62
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the domestic to the national security sector. The formula developed by each party with respect to this problem is coded according to the operationalization in the following paragraphs.

The "military" is construed to include all national security forces directed toward the control or elimination of external or internal threats and under the command of the state--namely, land armies; air, sea, and marine forces; intelligence and customs services; police forces; and the like. We recognize that this conception of "military" obliterates the distinction between "internal" and "external" security. But "police" in some nations do such double duty, and the "armed forces" in others are occasionally mobilized to defend regimes against internal enemies.

Operational Definition. The following position classifications were used in applying the scoring matrix for issue orientation.

PRO-strong

5

Promilitary. Favors greater infusion of resources into armed forces or increase in expenditures to achieve pervasive security against perceived foreign or domestic enemies; military budget given priorities over domestic programs, with little questioning of underlying assumptions.

PRO-moderate

3

Promilitary. Generally supportive of requests for funds by the armed forces, but does not favor stepped up allocations of support to achieve goals at the expense of other pressing social problems .

PRO-weak

1

Does not argue in principle against support of armed forces and does not argue in principle for reductions in current expenditures, but military budget is not given preferential treatment in competition with domestic programs .

NEUTRAL

0

Includes ambiguous or contradictory positions.

CON-weak

-1

Persistently criticizes armed forces expenditures under pressure from other pressing social needs; urges some reductions in military resources in the context of support for other programs.

CON-moderate

-3

Antimilitary. Argues in principle against large allocations of resources to armed forces; either favors cutbacks in military support or continued support at low levels.

CON-strong

-5

Antimilitary. Argues in principle against the maintenance of security forces greater than necessary to handle routine domestic police functions and patrol national boundaries; favors continuations of that situation if it exists.

Coding Results. The relatively low means for AC506 stated in Tables 6.7a and 6.7b attest to the difficulty of coding parties on their support of the military. More than one quarter of the parties turned up with missing observations. Note that in our scoring, the leftist (positive) side of this scale is equated with a promilitary stance. This conflicts with the popular image of leftist sentiment being antimilitary, but it is consistent with our alignment of positive scores with greater governmental activity in the issue area. We have opted for preserving the internal logic of our scoring procedure

TABLE 6.7a: Mid 1950s: BV5.06 Support of the Military

TABLE 6.7b: Early 1960s: BV5.06 Support of the Military

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